Key features of geological structure and Tajikistan’s metallogeny

The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the extreme south of the territory of the Commonwealth of Independent States. From the north and north- west it borders respectively with the republics of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, in the south – with the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, in the east – with the People’s Republic of China. Its area is 142.2 thousand km2. 93 % of its territory is mountainous. The absolute height of the earth’s surface of the republic are in the range of 300 to 7495 m (Peak Somoni in the Pamirs). The predominant part of the territory of the republic is located above 3,000 meters.

The territory of Tajikistan has extremely complex geological structure. Here, as a result of intensive demonstration of Caledonian, Hercynian and Alpine phases of diastrophism the principal tectonic structures had repeatedly renewed with the territory, whereby the structure of the territory acquired a mosaic block-folded structure. The rocks that are composing the territory of the country are very diverse in age, composition and structure. There are set of sedimentary- metamorphic rocks that have very ancient Archaic age. The most widely developed geological formations include Phanerozoic age.

Geological structure and development of the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan, including its deep structure, as well as minerals and patterns of their distribution were considered in a number of survey papers [ 1,3,4,6-13,17, 22-24, etc.]. The complexity of the geological structure of the territory of Tajikistan and the diversity of its mineral resources are due to its location at the crossroads of two major geosynclinal- fold mobile belts – Ural-Mongolian and the Mediterranean, which are respectively Caledonia – Hercynian Northeast and Mid – Tien -Shan and Hercynian – Cimmerian North and South Pamir geosynclinal- fold belts.

The boundary between them is held by Ilyaksko – Vakhsh and North Pamir zones of faults, which are respectively the north and the south flank of the Mesozoic- Cenozoic sediments and structure of the Trans-Alay mountain ranges, Peter 1, the Alai valley and the Tajik intermountain virgations (cavities). Between the Caledonides of the Northern Tien Shan and Hercynides of Southern Tien Shan there are located hercynides’ of Kurama zone and the Ferghana Epihercynian Mesozoic- Cenozoic depression.

The main features of the structure and ore- bearance of North Tien Shan region, as well as the North Pamir formed by the end of the Hercynian phase of diastrophism and that of South Pamir,had formed at the end of the Cimmerian era. Within the above -mentioned fold regions there are five regions which differ on the specifics of its geological development and which are coinciding with the main geological and economic regions of the Republic – North (Kuramin zone), Northeast (Fergana valley), Central (Hissar- Alai), South- West (Tajik basin) and South- East of Tajikistan (Pamir).

Northern Tajikistan (4 km2) covers the Kurama Range and Mount Kurama Mogoltau areas of the Middle Tien Shan. Its geological structure involves three structural stages – Caledonian, Hercynian and Alpine. Caledonian structural – formational complex is represented by sand- shale and volcanic strata of Ordovician – Lower Devonian, with a capacity of 5000m. The prevalence of complex species is negligible. Hercynian structural – formational complex is composed of the Middle Devonian formations – the Upper Permian (Lower Triassic ?). The complex contains three structural tiers. The bottom is composed of carbonate strata of the Middle Devonian – Lower Carboniferous, with a capacity of 2500 m thickness, the middle tier is composed of terrigenous and volcanic rocks of the Middle Carboniferous, with a capacity of about 900m. The top tier consists of layered volcanic rocks of the Middle Carboniferous – Upper Permian, with a capacity of about 1000 m.

Alpine structural-formational complex is composed of two tiers-platform Mesozoic-Cenozoic (Rat Eocene) Quaternary cover and Oligocene (P33-Q) continental red-and gray-colored epi-platformal molasses.

The region is characterized by a very wide development of magmatic formations as volcanic and intrusive ones, especially granitic formations of the Upper Paleozoic age, forming the edge of volcano – plutonic complex. There are widely developed circular volcanic depression and dome structures, as well as belts and field dikes of acid, intermediate and basic composition. The Caledonian (pre-Devonian) subvolcanic intrusions of diorite and granite are marked in the northwest of the Kurama Range and in the mountains Mogoltau. Magmatic rocks of basic and ultra basic composition are extremely rare.

Ore-bearing features of Karamazar and Mogoltau mountains are determined by the presence of numerous deposits and occurrences of lead-zinc (silver) and copper ore, fluorite, barite, arsenic, bismuth, gold, silver, tungsten, molybdenum, aluminum raw materials (alunite, diaspore), iron, and a number of other ores and skarn mainly hydrothermal and telethermal types that are genetically related to Late Paleozoic magmatism. These deposits are repeatedly described in detail in the geological literature, [10, 23, etc.].

North- East of Tajikistan (5000 km2) is represented by the western part of the Fergana basin. The latter is composed of folded thick (up to 12000m) of Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata of clastic and carbonate sediments deposited at the Hercynian folded complex, similar to the composition of its geological formations of the Paleozoic mountain frame. From the south and from the north the basin is bounded on its mountain frame, respectively, of the South and the North boundary of Fergana faults. Along the southern border of the Fergana basin it installed by numerous, mostly small oil and gas deposits (Selroha, Kanibadam Neftabad, etc.).

Central Tajikistan (Hissar- Alai, 34 km2) covers the territory of Turkestan, Zeravshan, Hissar and Karateghin ridges that are part of the Hercynian geosynclinal – folded region of the Southern Tien Shan. The geological structure of the latter include mainly medium – Upper Paleozoic and, to a lesser extent, the Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. Intrusive rocks of the most common (about 50 % of the area) are developed in Hissar range, where they form the so-called Hissar pluton (C2 -3), with a total area of about 5000 km2. In Zeravshan and Turkestan ridges they occupy no more than 10 – 12 % of the area, and, in the latter region, there are especially the developed the basic and ultrabasic intrusions fracture (SD), forming a dike zone. Middle Devonian peridotite, pyroxenite, gabbro and granite with garnet and cordierite are known within the Garm median masses. Here are also established the Precambrian gneiss- granites. Stratified volcanic formation of the main – acid composition is observed in sections of the lower, middle and upper Paleozoic.

The tectonic structure of the Hissar- Alai is created mainly by the movements at the end of the Paleozoic era. The Cimmerian and Alpine phase diastrophism have renovated and complicated the Hercynian structure and resulted in block-folded and fold-thrust modern image of the region. In the Hercynian structure of Hissar- Alai, MM Kuhtikov [17 ] identifies 13 tectonic zones (south to north) : 1) Mechetlinskaya, 2) Surmetashskaya, 3) Baysun- Kshtutskaya, 4) Beshnauskaya, 5) Osmantalinskaya, 6) Central Hissar, 7) Garm- Hait, 8) Barzangi – Shumkarskaya, 9) Yagnob, 10) Zeravshan- Turkestan, 11) Kurganakskaya, 12) of the foothills of the High Scarlet, 13) Karachatyrskaya. The most popular in the geological literature is the tectonic zoning scheme Hissar- Alai on PD Vinogradov [ 8], which highlights ; (north to south): 1) the Turkestan- Alai, 2) of the Turkestan- Zeravshan, 3) Zeravshan- Hissar (Zeravshan- Alai), 4) South Hissar 5) Garm structural- formational zone, and 6) the Karakum continental core, according to V.I. Popov.

In the geological history of the Hissar- Alai are distinguished the sequentially displayed geosynclinal- folded (Є -T2), platform (T3- Eocene) and epi – orogenic (Oligocene – Q) stages of development. The South Tien Shan geosyncline was laid on the sialic crust, which has been here since the Precambrian. Its fragmentation in the Early Cambrian deep-seated faults led to drilling of geosynclinal development of which was finished in P2 – T2 by the formation of Epihercynian platform. The early stages of geosynclinal development of the region (Є – S1 [24 ]) is characterized by the accumulation of clastic formations of slate and volcanic formations of the ophiolite, with a total capacity of about 4000 m Intrusive magmatism of this phase is expressed by manifestations of subvolcanic bodies lherzolite, gabbro, dolerite, diorite, hornblendites calc -alkaline subalkali and composition. Middle stage of geosynclinal development of the region (S2 – C12 [24 ]) is characterized by calmer tectonic conditions than in the early stage, that are close to the platform, and carbonate of lime, magnesia, with a total capacity of 1500m. Magmatism is characteristic of this stage manifestation of dikes and sills, sub-alkaline basalt, diabase, spilites and plagiogranite subvolcanic porphyry, granodiorite porphyry, quartz diorite porphyry, forming nekks, forces and subjacent intrusive-like body.

Late stage of geosynclinal development of the region (C22-T1 [24]) is remarkable by revival of geosynclinal development mode, which led to tension, fragmentation, and deflection of the continental crust. The carbonate plant formed the powerful (1,000 meters) deep siliceous and then clastic flysch deposits of geosynclinal stage, respectively, in the initial and final stages of its development. The orogenic stage formed coarse clastic gray-and red-colored molasses, as well as ground andesite-dacite-rhyolite and dacite formation.

In the early stage of the revived geosynclinal regime (C2) formed spongolite-jasper, phtanite and siliceous volcanic-lateral series of formations, as well as sodium volcanics spilite-keratophyre formation and comagmates, plagioclase-granitoids dioritoids and gabbro-pyroxenite of geosynclinal stage.

Orogenic stage (P-T1) at the initial stage (P1) is characterized by the accumulation of coarse-grained gray-colored intermountain molasses and the formation of powerful ground-based products of volcanism: trachyandesites-rhyolite-dacite, rhyolite, trachyandesites-basalt formations in the final stage (P2-P1), the accumulation of powerful piedmont red-colored molasses. The geologic formations of initial stage of the geosynclinal stage erupt with granitoids of the sodium gradient, and the final stage – potassium.

In Hissar-Alai, as can be seen from the above, the intrusive rocks are marked in the Precambrian, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, though most intensely they are manifested in the Paleozoic (P-P). The magmatic processes in the region are resulted in the formation of alkaline intrusions of granite and nepheline syenite in the Late Permian-triasse, as well as dikes and explosion pipes, habroides and alkaline basalts in the Triassic.

The significant feature of the metallogeny of South Hissar area is that here iron pyrite mineralization is associated with igneous rocks of early geosinclinal magmamite, which have potential for Ni, Co, Pt [ 18]. Mineralization here is wider developed due to the inversion of granitoids : a) skarn iron- rare earth with granitoids with enhanced core of the Middle Carboniferous, and b) cassiterite, cassiterite, wolframite – scheelite manifestations of pegmatite, greisen and hydrothermal biotite porphyry- type granitoids from the Late Carboniferous. On the Early Permian multipartite trachyandesite – dacite- liparite and subvolcanic porphyry is associated with polymetallic formation, quartz- sulfide -hematite, quartz- (carbonate) -copper- sulfide, quartz- copper- molybdenum- sulfide, quartz- fluorite, mercury and antimony- quartz- Vermilion mineralization [ 2,19 ]. On the Triassic complex alkali basalts and gabbros, a close relation is widely manifested sulfide- fluorite and gold – quartz (Pakrut) mineralization [ 19]. With the stage of epi – platform orogeny (P33 -Q) is associated the formation of regenerated deposits of calcite- barite- fluorite formation [ 19].

Metallogenic look of Zeravshan- Hissar zone is defined by the extensive development of deposits and occurrences of gold, silver, antimony, mercury, tungsten, tin, lead, zinc, fluorite, calcite, and many other types of minerals that are genetically related to the inversion (C2 -3 : gold, silver, tungsten, tin, lead, zinc, fluorite and calcite), orogenic (P1 -2 : antimony, mercury), taphrogenic (T1 -3, gold) stages and stage of epi – platform activation (P33 -Q: antimony, mercury, uranium, silver, copper, zinc, lead, arsenic). Here stand out two ore belt – rare metal (W and Sn with Au) and mercury- antimony, which are spatially very close and often replace each other along the strike of the metallogenic zone.

In rare metal belt there are developed deposits and occurrences of skarn and hydrothermal types containing scheelite, molybdenite, arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite mineralization. The mineralization zone gravitates towards fault zones of north- west strike to control the placement of ore- parent granitoid intrusions and dikes of the main zones, sour and subalkali composition. They are best developed on the western flank of the zone. Metallogenic look of Zeravshan- Hissar area is largely determined by deposits of tungsten and tin -type hydrothermal cassiterite – sulphide (Kaznok – Mushistonskoe ore field, etc.) and cassiterite- silicate- sulfide (Tagobikul – Kumarhskoe ore field) formations. They are located on the extension of the eastern zone which on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic are established industrially important deposits (Trudovoe, Uchkoshkon, etc.).

Mercury- antimony ore zone covers the fields of Shing Magianskiy, Konchochskoe, Dzhizhikrutskoe, Yagnob – Zahobskoe, which are confined to the blocks framed by zones of fracture patterns. The deposits are confined, as a rule, to the upper tier of the Paleozoic structural region. Mercury- antimony deposits are gold-bearing everywhere,which is increasing their commercial value.

In Zeravshan- Hissar area there are established 3 fields, and 27 occurrences of lead and zinc, often containing silver. Peculiarly there are found 12 silver objects, the most significant of which is the deposit Mirhant. The vast majority of deposits and occurrences of Pb, Zn and Ag are located on the western flank of the metallogenic zone.

To the Triassic (Rhaetian) crust of weathering, formed on the Paleozoic rocks are confined small reserves of bauxite, to sub-platform Lower – Middle Jurassic clastic sediments – layers of coking coal of Fan Yagnob fields with proven reserves of 1 billion tons, and to the Paleogene deposits – are confined deposits of phosphorite (mine Rivat).

In Turkestan- Zarafshan area industrially promising is Ruziobnokskiy monometallic mercury mining field, located on the southern slope of the Turkestan range. This mineralized zone can be traced for a distance of several kilometers. Tin-bearing pegmatites are located in the axial part of the Turkestan range due to orogenic (C2 -3) granites. They are confined to the Middle Paleozoic shale thickness. In connection with belts and ultrabasic dikes in the basic structure of the Turkestan- Alai and Turkestan- Zarafshan metallogenic zones there is established iron- titanium (ilmenite, Ti-magnetite) mineralization that deserves further detailed study.

Southwest Tajikistan (33 km2) is represented by the Tajik depression – Epihercynian Alpine sub-platform, eastern flank of the Turan plate. The structure of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic platform cover depression, with capacity 7-15 km, has three distinct structural stages. The lower tier of the structural complex deposits T3-J3-aged, middle tier – deposits K1-P32 age and the upper age P33-Q.

The foundation of the Tajik depression is never exposed. The platform cover is represented (from the bottom upwards in the sequence) by continental lagoon and coastal marine formations that occur in the following sequence: paralic Lower and Middle Jurassic coal-bearing, marine medium, Upper Jurassic carbonate, lagoons, salt- Kimmeridgian – Tithonian, Lower Cretaceous continental red sandy siltstone, coastal- marine Upper Cretaceous limestone- clay- sandstone and Paleocene- Eocene (P1 -2) sulfide- carbonate- clay.

From the Oligocene (P2) Tajik depression becomes intermountain depression. It builds a strong (about 6500 m) red- and gray-colored Oligocene – Paleocene molasses, folded in the bottom of the fine-clastic (power 4100m), and the top – coarse clastic (power 2400m) rocks – the products of erosion of uplifting mountain ranges of the Pamir and Hissar- The Scarlet and the mountain ranges that have arisen in the depression itself. At the latest stage the Tajik depression, as Hissar- Alai, represents epi-platform Orogen. Depression is composed of five or six relatively small anticlinoria. In the south they virgate and get divergent, expanding, and to the north quickly get narrowed to merge and form a narrow strip of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments, leaving in the North Pamir, in the Trans Alai, where, according to D. Nalivkin [20 ], may make up the bottom of the majestic mountainous Alai valley. As per number of researchers [ 14 and others] Alay valley once had a width of nearly 500 km. Since the Oligocene, when the activation of tectonic movements in the collision of Indian and Eurasian plates ocurred, the structure of the Pamir moved to the north is not less than 500 km, and that led to the modern look of the tectonic structures as the Tajik virgation, and most of the Pamirs.

In respect of mineral resources Tajik depression is of interest primarily because of its petroleum potential to Paleogene, Cretaceous and Jurassic supra-and subsalt sediments. There are 4 open oil, 2 oil and 3 gas fields. Great prospects in the region are associated with different age deposits of various building materials and Jurassic rock salt. In Upper Cretaceous reef limestone of the region there are established lead-zinc ore stratiform type (field Iokundzh, surb, Sangi – Sabz). Strontium carbonate mineralization is installed in the lower Paleogene sediments (field Chaltish, Daudir, etc.).

South- East of Tajikistan (Pamir) occupies the extreme south- eastern part of the mountainous Tajikistan, a total area of 67,000 km2. Pamir is bordered on the east by China, on the south and west, with Afghanistan in the northwest, with the Tajik depression, and in the north, with the Alai valley. Pamir is the area ‘s highest mountain ranges. Their height is often beyond the 6 000m, and some peaks are exceeding 7,000 meters (Peak Somoni in the north- western part of the Pamirs 7495 m Lenin Peak in Transalai Range 7134 m). By the nature of the relief the northern and western part of the Pamir – Alai similar Hissar region and the eastern part of it is highly elevated (above 4000 m), a kind of desert plateaus, highlands, relatively weakly dissected by erosion. In the north of the Pamirs is the world’s biggest mountain glacier Fedchenko.

In the spatial arrangement of different ages of geological complexes in the Pamir is noted a pronounced zoning, initially identified by D.V. Nalivkin in 1915 who contributed to it within the archwise curved northwards bonds of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

There are many schemes of tectonic zoning of the Pamirs (D.V.Nalivkin and P.D.Vinogradov [9], B.P.Barhatov [4], Sh Denikaev [11], etc.). Per a set of test geological formations, their age, composition and types of structures formed by them in the territory of the Pamirs there are the two [4] uneven fold systems: the Hercynian-Kunlun who have completed a full cycle geosynclinal development in the late Paleozoic – early Mesozoic, and the Cimmerian – Karakoram, that have finished this development in the Upper Cretaceous.

In the area of Paleozoic fold belt – on the North Pamir (22,000 km2) stand out subzones of – Kalaykhum Sauksayskaya, Karakul and Darwaz – Sarykol, and in Meso- Cenozoic fold belt of the South Pamir (45,000 km2) stand out the folded zones : Central Pamir, South- East and South west. The latter is Precambrian (Archean- Proterozoic) median mass. Central Pamir consists of sub-zones : Vanch, Akbaytalskoy, Vanj – Yazgulemsky, Muzkol – Rangkulskoy, Yazgulemsky and Sarezskoye – Pshart and South- Eastern Pamirs is presented by subzones : Rushan, Alichur – Gurumdinskiy, Bazardarinskiy, Pshart, Murghab, Tahtamyshskoy, Istykskoy, Namangutskoy. In addition, stands Pamir- Alai Mesozoic- Cenozoic after geosynclinals area flanking the north hercinides of North Pamir and representing tafrogenniy basins filled with Triassic – man-made accumulations, unconformably overliying the Late Paleozoic folded basement.

Northern zone of the Pamir comprises Paleozoic accumulations of miogeosynclinal and eugeosynclinal types. In subordinate development here are also Archean – Lower Proterozoic formations represented by gneisses, schists, marbles and granites. It is assumed [13] that these rocks were the foundation on which later, in the Paleozoic, pawned miogeosynclines. For example, in one of the troughs, located in the northern part of the North Pamir (Kalai-Khumb Sauksayskom) at the base of a number of miogeosinclynal Lower Paleozoic formations are sand-shale formations. Further lies the carbonate formation Silurian-Devonian, basalt-rhyolite formation of the Lower Carboniferous, Permian flysch formation and molasse trisassic formation. In the southern part of the North Pamir, in Darwaz-Sarykol subzone miogeosynclinal deflection is filled with sand and shale deposits of the Silurian – Permian. Throughout miogeosinclynal sediments are intruded by granitoid intrusions of the Late Mesozoic-Early poleozoic.

Eugeosynclinal formations are developed in the north-west zone of the North Pamir. They are composed of Lower Carboniferous volcanic basalt-andesite. The base section of volcanic rocks in the landscape is not naked. It is assumed that the volcanic rocks are overlain by serpentinite protrusions. They are overlain by carbonate accumulations of medium-and upper rock coal age above which overlie Permian flysch-reef formation and molasse formation of the Late Permian – Early Triassic.

South Pamir- Karakoram fold system is separated from the North -Pamir zone by Vanj – Tanimasskiy thrust. The structure of the Precambrian basement comprises of complex part and the Lower Middle Paleozoic formation, composing the individual structural floors. The most significant are the arrays of Precambrian South – West Pamir and Vanchskiy Muzkol in the Central Pamirs. Metamorphic rocks are composed of schists, gneisses, marbles and high temperature granulite- amphibolite facies. With them are associated ultramafic, gabbro – peridotite, gabbro, plagiogranites, granodiorites, Charnockites.

Geosynclinal complex includes deposits from the Carboniferous to Jurassic inclusive. In the area of South-Eastern Pamirs in the complex are two structural stages: the lower-Carboniferous-Triassic-Jurassic and Upper.

Rushan – Pshart zone is composed mainly of geosynclinal complex of clastic- carbonate deposits of the Carboniferous – Permian, similar in composition to miogeosynclinal coeval deposits of the area of South – Eastern Pamirs. Upper Permian – Triassic deposits are composed of carbonate- siliceous- volcanogenic (sodic basalts, up to 1500 m) formation, similar rift zone basalts South- Eastern Pamirs. In both zones at the end of the Triassic apparent folding stage, accompanied by the formation in the axial zone of the South- Eastern Pamirs gray-colored and red-colored crude molasses (up to 600 m) and the formation in both areas of high- potassium intrusive masses of granite.

In the area of the Central Pamir geosynclinal complex is composed of a single continuous section of the deposits of Permian to Jurassic inclusive. In the middle section, the Permian – Triassic boundary is dominated by carbonate- siliceous sediments (up to 400 m) at the subordinate role of basic-intermediate volcanic composition. Upper Triassic – Bajocian is represented by terrigenous flysch (up to 3.5 km). Bathonian – Upper Jurassic section is composed mainly of carbonate formation. In general, the complex is miogeosynclinal. Complex is characterized by the formation of orogenic granitic intrusions and molasses of the two phases. The first stage – epi-geosynclinal orogeny, is manifested at the boundary of the Jurassic and Cretaceous. In the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene came the stabilization of the region. In the area of the Central Pamir most clearly is manifested Cretaceous (till Syenonian), and red-colored molasses (up to 800 m) and small intrusions of diorite and syenodiorite, and in the area of South- Eastern Pamirs – there are formed sheet-like body of granodiorite, monzonite and plumasite potassium granites. In the Syenonian – Eocene in the area of the Central Pamir are formed andesite- rhyolite volcanic rocks (up to 1500 m) and the South- Eastern Pamirs were formed of alaskaite granites. The second stage (P33 -Q) characterizes the modern era of tectonic and magmatic activity of the Pamirs and Central Asia.

On the South-Eastern Pamirs in the Oligocene-Miocene strata was formed by red coarse clastic (up to 2000 m). In the South Pamir is very well developed Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous, the Cretaceous-Paleogene and Neogene possibly granite (Pamir array, etc.) and alkaline intrusives, followed by a rare-metal pegmatites, respectively (Ta, Nb, Be, etc.) and with carbonatites fluorite and rare earth mineralization.

In general, South Pamir is fully comprised of formations of miogeosynclinal type forming a continuous incision from the Late Proterozoic to Early Cenozoic. Among the igneous rocks the granitoids dominate here. In the present structure of the South Pamir two conjugate complex built mega-anticlinorium corresponding Central Pamir zone and zones of Rushan- Pshart and South -East – Pamir. At the same North Pamir, in contrast to the South, are clearly expressed geosynclinal (Є -C1) ophiolite complexes – Early Carboniferous volcanic rocks spilite keratophyre – formation as well as gabbros and various intrusive rocks and Kalaikhumb Obihumorskiy plagiogranitic intrusive gabbro complexes. Also included are layered ultramafic massifs – basic rocks (D- C1) of Darvoz range. This is largely due to ore characteristics of the two fold systems.

In the Northern Pamirs are noted manifestations of different mineralization in Pr, Є -O1, C1n-C2, P1-P2, P2-T1, i.e. throughout the tectonic- magmatic cycle [ 5]. The predominant part of the skarn and hydrothermal deposits and occurrences of gold and polymetallic ores of copper, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, iron, tin, tungsten, and others, according to N.K. Morozenko [20 ], is associated with the Early Carboniferous intrusions Kalaykhum –Sauksayskiy and Obihumboskiy complexes. With intrusive magmatism stripping step (C2- P) he linked the formation of the manifestations of Pb, Zn, Ag, Au, Fe and rare metals. On Later Orogenic stage (P) were formed mercury may antimony and chromite mineralizations.

Characteristic feature of the area of the Central Pamir, according to L. Afinogenov [1 ], is the spread of hydrothermal gold, copper and rare metal and rock crystal displays of Paleogene in connection with the orogenic granitoid intrusions Vanj – Sarykol complex. At the stage of tectonic and magmatic activity in the Neogene, in connection with alkaline intrusions there were formed small fluorite – rare metal mineralizations and telethermal silver -polymetallic deposits. In the area of Rushan – Pshart in connection with the high-alumina granites of Dzhizevskiy complex (TJ) is genetically – related the rare metal pegmatite (Li, Be, Ta, Nb, etc.), skarn and greisen mineralization (Sn, W, Mo, Pb, Zn, etc.). In the area of South- Eastern Pamirs early orogenic Cretaceous -Paleogene granitoids are associated with skarn and hydrothermal boron – rare metal tin and mercury- antimony mineralization.

In general, the South Pamir is defined [1 ] as tin – rare-metal province. There are also known more than 220 outlets thermal and cold mineral carbonates, radon and hydrogen sulfide waters.

In the area of Precambrian metamorphic complexes in South – Western Pamirs are deposits of noble spinel, low-iron apocarbonic talc, forsterite clinohumite, pezoturmalina, enstatite, lapis lazuli, garnet, ruby, staurolite. To the sedimentary formations are confined geosynclinal complex manifestations of bauxite in the Central zone of carbonate strata of the Pamirs on the Permian- Triassic, and the coal in the base of the section of the Jurassic zone South- Eastern Pamirs.


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Авторы: Азим Иброхим, М.М. Мамадвафоев, М.Д. Джанобилов