The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the south-eastern part of Central Asia, the area of the Republic is 142,2 sq. km. Tajikistan in the west and north-western borders with Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan to the north, China in the east, in the south of Afghanistan. Tajikistan is a mountainous country. Within its limits are the highest mountain ranges of the Pamir and Tien Shan with an altitude 5000-6000 meters. Peak Somoni, 7495 meters. On the high mountain areas account for 93 % of its territory, and the arable land is only 7 %. Nearly half of Tajikistan’s territory is situated at an altitude of over 3,000 meters. The presence of the mountains complicates the organization of inland transport and communication, but at the same time is a factor in ensuring the republic’s rich hydropower resources.
By its hydropower resources Tajikistan ranks second after Russia among the CIS countries and the eighth largest in the world. The country has a large Nurek hydropower plant with a capacity of 2,7 MW, built Rogun power of 3,6 MW, and Sangtudinskaya’s power of 0,6 MW. Production of electricity in Tajikistan is currently about 17 billion kWh / year. The major cities of the country, Dushanbe, Khujand, Kurgan, Kulyab Shahritus are connected by rail with the countries of the CIS, Dushanbe, Khujand, and Kulyab have international airport. The country has highly developed network of roads and several bridges across the Panj River Road that link Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
Geographically, the country is divided into three differing regions: the flat part in the center and south-west of the country is predominantly extended areas of the valleys or mountain canyons, depression, within the flat part is living an absolute majority of the population, the northern province are most economically developed and Lightly populated and mountainous is the eastern part. Before the victory of the October Socialist revolution in Tajikistan there was no industry, railways, power plants, the vast majority of the population was illiterate.
In the Soviet period (until September 1991), Tajikistan was part of the economic system of the Soviet Union and had some success in education, health, in the territory of the republic were built industries, thousands of kilometers of roads, railways, there has been a fairly high standard of living. The basis of the economy was agriculture, and more than half of the population lived in rural areas. The country produced about one million tons of cotton annually. Since independence structure of Tajikistan’s economy has not changed. The most important economic sector is agriculture, which employs more than half the country’s population. Industry, especially mining, does not operate stably. Production is concentrated in a few sectors such as power generation, aluminum production, textile and food industries.
Domestic export products of the country are cotton and aluminum. In recent years, Tajikistan produces about 400 thousand tons of cotton and 300 thousand tons of aluminum.
During the years of Soviet power in Tajikistan were performed significant amount of exploration works. Its territory is covered with small and medium-scale geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, geotechnical, aero-space imaging. Drafted maps during that times was the basis for the prediction and searches of various kinds of minerals. Promising with respect to the mineral and raw resources area, the areas of industrial and civil construction had also undergone large-scale and detailed geological studies. In Tajikistan, was a powerful multi-national Geological Survey, which could solve the major theoretical and practical issues of Geology of the Republic. It was found that in the course of a long, differentiated and multicyclic manifestations of the tectonomagmatic phases, metamorphic processes and ore genesis the territory of the republic gained territory fold – blocky – scaly structure, having mineragenic zones with different features.
At present, the geological structure of the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan is distinguished by Mid-Tien Shan (North Tajikistan – mountain Karamazar and Fergana valley), Southern Tien Shan (a large part of central Tajikistan) Gisaro – Severopamirskuyu (South-West and Central Tajikistan Kalaykhum Saupsayskaya – band North Pamir) Afghan-Tajik (the so -called Afghan – Tajik depression) and South Pamir region. Within these zones, thanks to the large-scale exploration activities, particularly intensively conducted in the years 1971-1990, in the depths of Tajikistan were revealed, explored and partially ready for commercial development of several hundreds of minings. These are deposits of lead and zinc, copper and bismuth, antimony and mercury, precious metals, molybdenum and tungsten, iron, tin, boron raw material, strontium, calcium fluoride, rock salt, semi-precious, semi-precious and precious stones, building stone and many other types of mineral raw materials for the construction industry, coal, anthracite, graphite, oil and gas, mineral wax, underground fresh, thermal and mineral water, phosphate, and a number of other minerals, with more than 50 kinds of mineral resources.
On the basis of proven reserves of various kinds of minerals were established fisheries, mines, coal mines, quarries, processing plants and factories, non-ferrous metallurgy and chemical industry, cement plant, the enterprise processing nonmetallic raw materials, sanatorium and health resort hospital, complexes on the use of thermal waters, etc.
For the republic 93 % of which is occupied by the highest peaks of the Tien Shan and Pamir mountains, the problem of further development of exploration and use of mineral resources remains one of the most important ones in strengthening the economy and economic independence.
The state of mineral resources of the Republic of Tajikistan today
The main metallogenic potential of gold in the country is focused in promising areas of Northern, Central and Southern Tajikistan’s Pamir. Explored reserves are concentrated in the gold-quartz deposits of Djilali – Tarorskiy and Turkestan – Chorinskiy ore zones of Central Tajikistan, as well as gold and gold -quartz – sulfide sites Karamazar. All objects of gold ore in the country are identified being more than 150, most of which are scarcely researched.
The most significant Taror gold deposit is located 44 km from the city of Panjakent. The mineralization at the deposit is localized in the zone of silicification and scarning, which is developed at the contact of granites and limestones. The region has the shape of tabular deposits. The major minerals in the ore include – gold, silver, copper, following – bismuth, selenium, tellurium. Harmful impurities – arsenic.
10 km from the deposit of Taror is located the gold-quartz stockwork Djilali. Stockwork is hosted in granitoids that form the core of brachyfolds. Gold-quartz ore is containing less than 1,8 % sulfides. In the same region, in the search and survey work, there are identified dozens of gold occurrence, the most interesting of which are included in the plan for further exploration.
Several smaller deposits of gold ore (Aprelevka, Burgundy, Ikkizhelon etc.) are identified and studied within Karamazarskiy ore field.
In addition, the exploration works recently were executed by the ores Dzhizhikrutskiy of antimony-mercury and currently under exploration is Chokadambulakskiy iron-bismuth deposit; the gold mineralization is found in industrial concentrations.
In Central Tajikistan, near Anzob – gold deposits have been explored gold ores in Chora and Eastern Duoba, as well as on the field Tarorskiy, presented by gold arsenic antimony ore. The main minerals include gold-bearing arsenopyrite and pyrite, and associated silver and sulfur, harmful arsenic, antimony and carbonaceous matter. In Soviet times, on the basis of these facilities was planned construction of another gold mine. In the same region, in search and survey work,were identified dozens of gold occurrence, the most interesting of which are included in the plan for further exploration work.
Pokrud gold deposit is located on the southern slope of the Hissar range, 107 km from the city of Dushanbe. The geological structure of the deposit has green sericite-chlorite-quartz schist Upper Ordovician. Schists near faults are intensely albitized, silicified and sulfidized. Ore zones are traced by wells to a depth of 220-540m ore minerals are pyrite and arsenopyrite. Gold is found mainly in the free form, sometimes associated with sulphides.The deposit had undergone prospect evaluation by mining and diamond drilling wells.
Within Darvoz region in the Pamir Mountains, the eastern part of the Tajik-Afghan Basin and the upper Zarafshan Valley identified and studied dozens of prospective sites of alluvial and alluvial – proalluvial types, with the depth of 60 m.
One of the priority sectors of the mining industry in Tajikistan during the Soviet era was gold mining. Mainly there were developed alluvial deposits in the South- East of the Republic. Production of gold from alluvial deposits has been brought to almost three tons. However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the events in Tajikistan, the industrial production of alluvial gold was almost stopped. Currently, based on the alluvial deposits of the regions of Darvoz Yahsuyskiy Valley was established JV ” Darvoz “, which every year is stepping up production of the metal. In addition, in the mining of placer gold in the country are engaged artisanal and individual gold miners several groups and cooperatives incorporated into the Union of prospectors and individual gold miners of Tajikistan.
Industrial extraction of gold on its properties was carried out on a small scale on the basis of Karamazarskiy small gold deposits (School, Burgundy, Aprelevka, etc.) with total reserves of about 20 tons. Today, on the basis of these deposits is working JV “Aprelevka.” For processing of gold ore deposits Taror – Djilali in Zarafshan River Valley in the late 90 ‘s was built gold mining with a project capacity of the first stage – about 2 tons. In 1994, on the basis of this plant was established the Tajik-British Joint Venture “Zarafshan ” which includes in itself the mines for the extraction of gold ore, the mill on their processing and alloying ” Dora.” End products are processed at the Tajik refinery.
In order to ensure stable operation of the enterprise for the production of gold, on a contractual basis there have been investigated a number of gold objects, including the ones which are near Djilali deposit, the deposit Kuduk Hirskhona, the Olympic. Exploration is underway on other closely located to the plant sites.
Speaking about the problems of the gold mining industry in Tajikistan, it should be noted that the country has significant resources of gold ore, some of which have been explored. However, in recent years the annual number of gold from the bowels of the republic is much higher than the amount of growth of balance reserves of this metal.
Therefore, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan adopted a program of accelerated development of the gold and silver – extracting industry, according to which it is planned to have sharp increase in the production of precious metals in the country. It is planned to involve in the production of new gold production facilities in the Zarafshan Valley, as well as conducting detailed exploration with estimated reserves and complex gold deposits in the North and the South of the Republic. Implementation of these measures should allow by 2010, to increase annual gold production in Tajikistan up to 10 tons.
The Republic of Tajikistan is the largest province in Central Asia with silver ore fields. In most fields silver is associated with lead and lead-zinc ores. Major proven reserves of silver ores are concentrated in northern Tajikistan – in Altyntopkanskiy and Central Karamazarskiy ore districts, where the development of powerful mining industry is well known. Until recently, there was functioning Altyn Topkanskaya Mining Group, which develops lead-zinc deposits Altyn Topkan and Paybulak. Concentrate ores containing associated components such as bismuth, cadmium, indium, silver, and other items supplied Almalyk Mining Group Mining and Metallurgical Combine in Uzbekistan. Currently, in the Altyn-Topkanskiy ore district is suspended all mining and geological work.
In this region, on the basis of approved by USSR State Reserves Committee reserves of comprehensive inventory of silver ore from the East Konimansur functions Adrasman (former lead-zinc) Mining plant. Prior to 1997, at the concentrator plant were processed copper-bismuth and lead-silver ores and concentrates were sent to processing plants of the CIS, in particular Shimkent lead plant. In 1985, the plant project Kazmekhanobr started reconstruction of the plant, increasing its capacity for processing of ore from 450 to 650 thousand tons per year.As a result of technical re-equipment the factory (according to preliminary calculations) is able to process per year up to 600 million tonnes of ore deposits of Konimansurskiy. However, in recent years the plant is working with indicators below target, and often even idle due to lack of working capital, although Adrasman mine is located within a concentration of significant reserves of lead-zinc, lead-silver, fluorite, silver and copper-bismuth ores, allowing operating large mining company for decades. In the vicinity of this deposit was explored in detail one of the largest deposits of silver ore – Large Konimansur, based on which, in accordance with the developed back in the 1988 feasibility study was planned construction of a mining facility with an annual capacity of 15 million tons of ore, which apart from the annual release of hundreds of tons of silver would be able to produce more significant amounts of lead, zinc, sulfuric acid, building materials and other by-products. However, with the collapse of the USSR, the question involved in the exploitation of this deposit was postponed indefinitely. In addition to these facilities in Tajikistan is a preliminary exploration of two fields of silver ore – Akdzhilga in the Pamirs – ores which contain hundreds of grams of silver per ton and Mirhantskiy near Tarorskiy gold deposit, located in a very favorable mining conditions. Development of these fields will allow Tajikistan to occupy a leading position in the CIS and the world’s largest producer of silver.
Lead and zinc
The Republic of Tajikistan on reserves of lead-zinc ore is a leader in the Central Asian region. Industrial stocks mineralization are hosted in skarn which is confined mainly to the secant contacts of granitic dikes in carbonate sediments, as well as a significant scale of stockworks and hydrothermal veins in propylitized volcanic rocks of the Central Upper Karamazar. Significant prospects for base metals are associated with the southern Fergana depression framing, where clastic-carbonate sediments of the Devonian is expected to have large stratiform deposits. More than 90 % of proven reserves of these metals are concentrated in Karamazarskiy mining district. It is sufficient to note that only the fields and Big Konimansur Altyntopkanskiy ore field was explored more than one billion tons of lead-zinc ore, most of which can be practiced openly. In these ores, except for lead, zinc, silver, bismuth, cadmium in recoverable quantities are still a number of valuable co-products.
According to proven reserves of antimony Tajikistan ranks third (after China and Thailand) in Asia and the first among the CIS countries. Zeravshan-Hissar mercury-antimony belt of Central Tajikistan has a large metallogenic potential of antimony ore concentrated in five areas. The most significant reserves of these ores are concentrated in Dzhizhikrutskiy and Konchochskiy ore fields. On the basis of stocks of Dzhizhikrutskiy mercury-antimony deposit is now working on Anzobskiy Mining plant.
Currently Anzob State Reserve Committee has no permanent market for antimony raw materials produced and the plant is intermittent and not working at full capacity (700 thousand tons / year). In recent years, as a result of the survey and assessment work in the deeper horizons of the deposit it had been identified that Dzhizhikrut has rich antimony ore containing more than 15 % of the metal, industrial concentrations of gold and other valuable items.
In the coming years, geologists of Geological Survey intend to significantly increase reserves of this field and bring security of Anzob to a planned output of 700 tons of ore per year. In addition, in the area of the plant is completed exploration of antimony-mercury rocky deposits, which can be considered as a backup source of raw materials of Anzob, or as a separate entity for the construction of a major new mining venture. With a large inventory of mercury-antimony ores, Tajikistan, even today, as in Soviet times, produces concentrates of such ores, and its further processing is carried out in other countries, particularly in neighboring Kyrgyzstan. The economic disadvantage of this situation is obvious, so now the question is about the organization of production in the Republic of antimony metal extraction from ores and associated components – mercury, gold and other elements.
Mineral resources of antimony in the country can be repeatedly extended by expanding the exploration for ore deposits of other areas where the prospective areas are identified.
Tin is one of the major metals of Central and Southern Tajikistan Pamir. The most significant deposits of this raw material – Mushkistonskiy, is located in the Zarafshan Valley, near the existing gold mill, previously explored. For this type of deposit is characteristic a sulphide mineralization that does not have a close spatial association with the manifested in the granitic intrusion. Mine ore-hosting structures are extended up to several hundred meters of vein – parallel mineralized zones in which cores perform a series of closely spaced cracks. Sometimes they go in stockwork body reticulate-stringer structures in zones of crushing and brecciation. Ore veins and veinlets are complex mineral composition and are composed of quartz with arsenopyrite, cassiterite, stannite, gray ores. The length of the mineralized structures varies from 80 to 500 meters, the power of 0, 5 and 17 meters. The tin content of ores ranges from a few tenths to a few percent. The ore bodies are vein-like and stock-type linearly stretched steeply dipping formations of quartz-cassiterite-gidrostannat-varlamovite composition. For deposits there is developed technological scheme of ore and a feasibility study (1990). The quality and quantity of the ore deposit, the location of objects in a favorable geographical and economic conditions, the positive feasibility study make this attractive for the organization on its basis of the field of mining production.
The largest deposits of tungsten – Mayhurinskiy is located on the southern slope of the Hissar range, 80 km from the city of Dushanbe. In the 1960s, this field was developed as wolfram – ore object. As a result of exploration in 1973 – 1975 here is established up to 19 industrial ore bodies with length of 50 – 425m and a capacity of 2 – 22m. The average content of tungsten trioxide, 0, 91 %. Apart from wolfram the Mayhurinskiy ore the tungsten ores contain recoverable quantities of zinc, copper, bismuth, cadmium. The main ore minerals are scheelite from the field, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, oxidation zone at the field is absent. In 1975 SCR of the USSR approved industrial reserves of ores, allowing to remaster the production of tungsten at the site.
Before the collapse of the Union the republic received almost all steel products from other regions of the country. The annual demand of Tajikistan was nearly 2 million tons and Tajikistan today is in need of significant quantities of steel products, because the country is located in a seismically active geotectonic zone in the country are built of large hydraulic structures, transport facilities, many civil engineering projects that require a significant amount of iron and concrete structures. Buy as many (or at least half of it !) of steel products for the Tajik economy is almost impossible. With this in mind, in recent years, additional exploration is done by geology survey of the previously explored iron -bismuth deposit Chokadambulak, located in the economic and industrial development in the northern region of the country, near the city of Khujand.
On the state balance of this deposit are magnetite ore reserves of more than 100 million tons. There is the prospect of growth of iron ore to several hundred million tons. Average iron content in the ore is nearly 40 %. The deposit is characterized by a common ore composition, mode of occurrence, and relates to the contact-metasomatic skarn type. The ore bodies are composed of magnetite, forming almost monomineral body or intense disseminated in the host skarn ore bodies. Value field increases significantly due to the presence of some ores, industrial sites amounts of bismuth, gold, silver and some other elements.
In 1965, the institute ” Sresazniprotsvetmet ” developed a feasibility study “On the feasibility of the organization in Central Asia, on the production of ferrous metals and bismuth -based Chokadambulakskih ores.” However, at that time, there had not yet been discovered and studied in Tajikistan the deposits of high-quality coking coal and anthracite, the manifestations of manganese ore, and in most Shohkadambulakskiy ore deposits were not detected the presence of extractable components. In addition, during that times was another economic and political situation in the region.
Therefore, the field needs to develop a new feasibility study, taking into account today’s realities, including open fields in recent years, anthracite, manganese ore in the country.
Besides Shohkadambulakskiy deposits in the Republic were established deposits of magnetite ore – Bartsch near Khorog, probable reserves which are estimated at 270 million tons, iron content up to 52% and magnetite ore Kharangon near Dushanbe.
Currently, the organization of production of ferrous metals and mining complex Shohkadambulakskiy’s unique field is under discussion in government circles of the country.
In the seventies of the last century in Tajikistan was created important economic sector of non-ferrous metals – aluminum industry – Tajik aluminum plant TadAz. The republic has built powerful new power plants, it is planned to build another aluminum smelter. But still is not resolved the question of the local resource base of these plants. Republic annually buys hundreds of thousands of tons of alumina from other CIS countries. In order to ensure significant needs of TadAz in alumina in the 70 – ies of the last century, there was previously explored deposits of nepheline syenite Turpi with reserves of more than 300 million tons of ore, located 350 km east of running aluminum plant. In 1972, the All-Union Institute of aluminum-magnesium was conducted TED – the feasibility of industrial development of the field Turpi. In the development of TED was used process of flowsheet nepheline syenite in Armenia, developed in the Academy of Sciences of Armenia and a number of other academic institutions of the former Union. There was established possibility to obtain a concentrate by chemical enrichment and sintering.
Next to mine Turpinskiy of the nepheline syenite in Ganja were explored deposits of marble, which are necessary for the production of alumina.
However, the question of the involvement of the field in the manufacture and provision of TadAz, with local raw materials, has not yet been removed from the agenda. So Geological Survey held multidisciplinary work on the creation of local raw material base for operating in the republic of TadAz and -a porcelain factory, which is located nearby. To this end, again on the agenda is the question of learning identified in previous years of boxites facilities and other high-alumina rocks suspended due to lack of technological schemes of processing these rocks into alumina, the development of new technological schemes of processing ore deposits Turpinskiy and current Feasibility Study and modern organization of production of alumina on the basis of Turpi field.
Tajikistan has explored several fields of celestite which are near Kulyab, total reserves of which allow, according to available estimates, to establish a highly profitable enterprise for the production of concentrate celistin and continue to produce strontium salts in the republic.
Fuel and energy commodities
For the economy of the Republic these are important energy resources, ensuring that at the time of the Soviet Union these were produced by supplies from other regions of the country in the amount of up to 2 million tons per year. In the republic itself coal mining on a commercial scale was made mainly on the basis of two fields (Shurab and Fan Yagnob) and reached 800-850 thousand tons per year. However, with significant probable reserves of 35 fields (about 3, 0 billion) and accounted by the State coal reserves (713, 8 million tonnes), the country now does not cover your need because of insufficient degree of exploration of many deposits and sharp reduce the level of production at Shurab brown coal deposit and Fan Yagnob coking coal deposit. Republican coal mining in recent years did not exceed 50,000 tons, with a minimum annual requirement of over 1, 3 million tons. Of coal deposits in Tajikistan the most noteworthy is Nazar Aylokskiy anthracite mine located in the Rasht district, 280 km from the city of Dushanbe. Here, as a result of the preliminary investigation interrupted by known events in 1991,on most studied eastern area were identified 16 coal seams of simple and complex structures, 15 of which are of commercial value. Main interest is in anthracite 1U, V, V1 layers, the quality is not inferior to the quality of the world-famous Vietnamese field Ha Tu. Technological tests carried out in specialized research institutes and enterprises of the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan has been demonstrated to be suitable for the production of anthracite carburizer used in the smelting of special steel and synthetic iron for grafitized refractories, calcium carbide, high-quality electrode products, corundum, sorbents, water gas, coke substitutes and flake graphite. Established geological reserves of coal deposits at this stage of study was defined in the amount of 212 million tonnes
Oil and gas
Republic is experiencing an acute shortage of proven oil and gas reserves, but has considerable probable reserves of both the first (120 million tons) and second (880 billion mz)types of mineral raw materials. So now its economy is almost entirely dependent on imports of oil and gas processing industry productions. The republic has taken various measures for the revival of large-scale exploration for oil and gas, and is refining their organization.
Vose deposit is located 2.3 km from the village of Vos in the immediate vicinity of the Vose salt factory. The field is at the northern part of the salt mountains of stock Khoja Mumin, inferred resources of which are estimated at multi-billion tons. The deposit area is 0, 6 km2. Full power strata of rock salt is up to 180 m Contents NaCI, the whole of the deposit varies from 49, 89 to 91, 41%. The content of insoluble residue of salt – is an average of 4, 7 %.
Deposit of rock salt Khoja Mumin, is in close proximity to the regional center of the Moscow region and is the southern tip of the salt dome Khoja – Mumin. Power of rock salt is within the field range from 58 to 249 m.At the field were about 160 sources arising from the thickness of rock salt. It was found that the salt may be used for food after processing.
Kamyshkurganskiy deposit of rock salt is in the territory of Asht, Sughd. Reserves, calculated on the south- western sector account for more than 558 million tons. On the basis of field work functions the salt factory.
On the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan phosphates are associated with clastic-carbonate formation of Middle Eocene age in the foothills of the northern slope of the Turkestan Range in Panjakent trough in the south-western spurs of the Hissar Range, in the south-Tajik depression, on the southern dive Bobotagskiy range. Total identified and studied in varying degrees comprise about 30 phosphorite deposits and occurrences.
Most studied phosphorite deposit is Rivatskoe, which is on the right side of river Zarafshan, opposite to Panjakent. The average content of P2O5 -5%, 22 km length of the reservoir, the average power is – 6,3 m balance includes 22 million tons of ore and probable reserves – 60 million tons. Rivatskiy phosphate rock deposits in the structure contain a variety of elements – and micronutrient fertilizers which are weakly cemented sandstones and easily enriched. Technological research demonstrated the possibility of obtaining from them rock phosphate and superphosphate.
Sufficiently studied are also phosphates of southern slope of the Hissar range (Karatag, Hachilerskoe deposits) and the North Slope of the Turkestan range – Isfara field.
Tajikistan created extensive database for the development of the construction industry ; explored up to 140 fields of building materials, of which utilized 40; development of deposits on most mining companies are provided with proven reserves of 20-50 years or more. In general, the construction industry of the republic has significant mineral and raw material base for the production of bricks, aggregates, expanded clay, agloporite, plaster, paneling, and saw rubble stone, lime, cement and other building materials with a great opportunity to increase its reserves and these new types of raw materials for the construction industry all regions of the country.
Tajikistan has also explored in detail the major resources of borosilicate materials in the Pamirs, quartz sand near Khujand, precious and semi-precious stones in the Pamirs and in other regions.
Mining Industry of the Republic of Tajikistan established during the Soviet period, was aimed primarily at meeting the needs of the economy of the former superpower, has served primarily as a source of raw materials processing industry in other regions. Existing mining companies worked out in many cases ore concentrate, which went for further processing in other regions of the country. Therefore, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when there were severed partnerships between enterprises in different regions, the products of the mining industry remains unclaimed. Some enterprises have ceased to exist, the other is much reduced production or in the best case, shifted to another production. Currently, there is a gradual revival of some companies, the search of he market for their products and their adaptation to the market conditions.
The country created the legal legislation for development of mineral resources in the current conditions of transition to market relations. With the direct participation of Geological survey was developed and adopted the Law “On Subsoil” and in accordance with the Act, were adopted a number of sub-legal rules and regulations, including the regulation on licensing of mineral resources, the state of the geological foundation of information on the registration and registration of geological work and etc.
When creating a legal framework for subsoil we have taken into account generally accepted legal norms and standards both previously existing and newly adopted in the CIS countries.
Concluding the review of development and exploration of mineral resources of the Republic of Tajikistan, it appears that at the present transition of our economies, particularly important are the issues of strengthening cooperation between CIS states in the exploration and utilization of our mineral resources, restoration of traditional scientific and industrial ties between geological departments of our countries, the maximum harmonization of rules of law on subsoil use, exchange of information and other matters.